Thursday, August 21, 2008

Soekarno-Hatta Airport

Soekarno-Hatta International Airport (Indonesian: Bandar Udara Internasional Soekarno-Hatta) (IATA: CGK, ICAO: WIII) is the main airport serving the greater Jakarta area on the island of Java, Indonesia. The airport is named after the first President of Indonesia, Soekarno, and the first vice-president, Mohammad Hatta. The airport is often called Cengkareng by Indonesian. Its IATA code, CGK is originated from the word Cengkareng, a subdistrict located to the northwest of the city.

Located about 20 km west of Jakarta, in Tangerang Regency, Banten, Soekarno-Hatta airport began to operate in 1985, replacing the former Kemayoran Airport (domestic flights) in Central Jakarta, and Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport in East Jakarta. Kemayoran Airport had since closed. Halim Perdanakusuma is still operating, serving mostly charters and military flights. Terminal 2 was opened in 1992.

The land area of the airport is 18 km². It has two independent parallel runways separated 2,400 m connected by two cross taxiways. There are two main terminal buildings: Terminal 1 is for all domestic airlines except for flights operated by Garuda Indonesia and Merpati Nusantara Airlines, and Terminal 2 serves all international flights as well as all domestic flights by Garuda and Merpati Nusantara Airlines.

Each terminal building is separated into 3 concourses. Terminal 1A, 1B, and 1C are used for (mostly) domestic flights by Indonesian airlines. Terminal 1A served flights by Lion Air, Wings Air and Indonesia AirAsia.

Terminal 2D and 2E are used to serve all international flights by international airlines. Terminal 2D are for all international airlines served by PT Jasa Angkasa Semesta, one of the ground handlers in the airport. Terminal 2E are for all international airlines served by Garuda, including all international flights of Garuda Merpati. Terminal 2F are for Garuda Indonesia and Merpati Nusantara Airlines domestic flights.

The airport was designed by Paul Andreu, a French architect who also designed Charles de Gaulle International Airport in Paris. One of the major characteristics of Soekarno-Hatta airport is the incorporation of the local vernacular architecture into the design, and the presence of tropical gardens in between the waiting lounges. However, due to poor maintenance, its not too strategic location, and lack of budget, the airport is inferior to many international airports in the region. However, Soekarno-Hatta International Airport was noted for its beautiful landscaping: the airport was awarded the 1995 Aga Khan Award for Architecture.

Soekarno-Hatta International Airport has 150 check-in counters, 30 baggage carousels and 42 gates. Each sub-terminal has 25 check-in counters, 5 baggage carrousels and 7 gates.

Angkasa Pura II is currently planning to build a new terminal with modern design features. Terminal 3 is being built for low-cost airlines, and already serves hajj flights and transnational migrant laborers. There is a masterplan to make 5 passenger terminals + 1 hajj terminal and 4 runways. In 2009 the airport will be connected to Manggarai Station (future Jakarta central station) by a railway. To finance the expansion, the airport is collecting an Airport Improvement Fee of IDR 100,000 ($9 USD/8 Euro) for each international passenger and IDR 30,000 for each domestic passenger.

In May 2008, recognized Soekarno-Hatta International Airport as the 6th most punctual airport in the world with 86.3% of its flights departing on time, while 72.3% arriving ontime.

Soekarno-Hatta International Airport was the 35th busiest airport in 2005/6.


Between 1928–1974, the Kemayoran Airfield intended for domestic flights was considered too close to an Indonesian military airfield, Halim Perdanakusuma. The civil airspace in the area became narrow, while air traffic increased rapidly, which risked international air traffic. In 1969, a Senior Communication Officers meeting in Bangkok expressed this concern.

In the early 1970s, with the help of USAID, eight potential locations were analyzed for a new international airport, namely Kemayoran, Malaka, Babakan, Jonggol, Halim, Curug, South Tangerang and North Tangerang. Finally, the North Tangerang airspace was chosen and it was also noted that Jonggol could be used as an alternative airfield. Meanwhile the Indonesian government started to upgrade the Halim Perdanakusumah airfield to be used for domestic flights.

Between 1974–1975, a Canadian consultant consortium consisting of Aviation Planning Services Ltd., ACRESS International Ltd., and Searle Wilbee Rowland (SWR), won a bid for the new airport feasibility project. The feasibility study started on 20 February 1974 with a total cost of 1 million Canadian Dollars. The one-year project proceed with an Indonesian partner represented by PT Konavi. By the end of March 1975, the study revealed a plan to build three inline runways, a perforated road, three international terminal buildings, three domestic buildings and one building for Hajj flights. Three stores for the domestic terminals would be built between 1975–1981 with a cost of US$ 465 million and one domestic terminal including an apron from 1982–1985 with a cost of US$ 126 million. A new terminal project, named the Jakarta International Airport Cengkareng (code: JIA-C), began.

Ground Transportation

Soekarno-Hatta International Airport provides a shuttle bus which connects Terminal 1 and 2. CGK also provides parking lots however passengers should be noted that these parking lots are often over capacity.

Depending on traffic, Soekarno-Hatta is a 30 minute drive from Jakarta's city center. Currently a DAMRI Shuttle Bus route links CGK to Rawamangun, Blok M/Kebayoran, Gambir, Bekasi, Depok and Bogor. Taxis are provided and is about 30 to 45 minutes into center city Jakarta. Car rental is provided by Avis, Bluebird, Goldenbird and Europcar.

PT RaiLink, subsidiary of PT KA plans to connect Soekarno-Hatta International Airport to Manggarai station by train service. The elevated train service construction started in March 2008 and finished in June 2009.

It is strongly recommended that you allow at least one hour to get to the airport from central Jakarta. If you are leaving the city after 4pm on any day, but especially a Friday, allow 90 minutes. Arriving into Jakarta from other cities you should plan to arrive after 9am so that you miss the heavy traffic. Morning commute from airport to the city can be as much as 2 to 3 hours depending on rain, inundation, incidents, roadworks or the toll operators randomly changing the payment methods or on/off ramp configurations. Furthermore, there is only one toll road servicing the airport, and as such you could miss your flight or be unavoidably delayed if not taking all these things into consideration.


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